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^ew Sc.t; ■!■■ 




From the Lihrary of the 

Fogg J^Ausmm of Art 
Harvari University 








N. German. 




Bohemian Boy. 




V. Vfrfstchagin. 













COFYRIGHT, 1888, »Y 


Pr«n of J. J. Uttie & Co., 
A«tor Place, New Yoric. 




Serbian Woman. 


-4* ^ • » » » 

I trust that men will love me ; for my art 
Speaks to the nobler feelings of the heart, 
Renders good service by the charm of truth. 
And for the vanquished ever pleads for ruth. 

{Adapted from PUSHKIN.) 

' HE historical details, some of which directly, 
others indirectly, concern my studies and 
pictures of Palestine — that interesting land 
for every Christian — are founded chiefly 
on traditions so well preserved among the 
people of the East. 

My own researches excepted, I have 
availed myself of the Gospels and old 
books, as well as of some modern com- 
pilations, such as Murray's Syria and Pal- 
estine^ Cook's Handbook for Palestine and Syria^ Isambert's 
Orient^ Brother Lievin's Terra Sainte, etc. Some of the 
studies are very small, my intention having been to repaint 
them a larger size. Some are unfinished, owing to the 
suspicion of the Turks that I was drawing plans of the 
" Promised Land." 



My impressions of travel in India formed themselves into 
a series of large pictures, in wTiich I conceived the idea of 
representing the history of the conquest of a large Asiatic 
country by a handful of brave and enterprising Europeans. 
The first picture, commenced on a large canvas, was intended 
to portray the Enghsh Ambassadors in the presence of the 
Great Mogul in his celebrated audience hall at Agra. The 
next pictures were to represent different prominent events 
of Indian history, finishing with the triumphant entry of 
the Prince of Wales into Delhi, symbolical of the definitive 
conquest of the country'. This last scene, which I witnessed 
in 1875, is the only one of the series completed, because the 
outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war at that time took me 
away from my studio to the battle- fields. 

4c ♦ « « « 

Observing life through all my various travels, I have 
been particularly struck by the fact that even in our time 
people kill one another everywhere under all possible pre- 
texts, and by every possible means.. Wholesale murder is 
still called war^ while killing individuals is called execution. 
Everywhere the same worship of brute strength, the same 
inconsistency ; on the one hand men slaying their fellows 
by the million for an idea often impracticable, are elevated 
to a high pedestal of public admiration : on the other, men 
who kill individuals for the sake of a crust of bread, are 
mercilessly and promptly exterminated— and this even in 
Christian countries, in the name of Him whose teaching was 
founded on peace and love. These facts, observed on many 
occasions, made a strong impression on my mind, and after 
having carefully thought the matter over, I painted several 
pictures of wars and executions. These subjects I have 
treated in a fashion far from sentimental, for having my- 
self killed many a poor fellow-creature in different wars, I 
have not the right to be sentimental. But the sight of 
heaps of human beings slaughtered, shot, beheaded, hanged 






under my eyes in all that region extending from the frontiei 

of China to Bulgaria, has not failed to impress itself vividly 

on the imaginative side of my art. 

And although the wars of the present time have changed 

their former character of God's judgments upon man, 

nevertheless, by the enormous energy and excitement they 

create, by the great mental and material exertion they call 

forth, they are a phenomenon interesting to all students of 

human civilization. My intention was to examine war in 

its different aspects, and transmit these faithfully. Facts 

laid upon canvas without embellishment must speak 

eloquently for themselves. 

iti * * nit * 

Next to the pictures where people are slain by the 
hundreds of thousands, there are some not uninteresting 
scenes of individual killing in the continual strife waged by 
the state against persons called criminals. 

In olden and more barbarous times the aim of an execu- 
tion was to torture the criminal by killing him as slowly as 
possible ; now, on the contrary, the aim is to kill him as 
speedily as possible and shorten his sufferings. From this 
point of view the English method of blowing from guns 
(94, ^), practiced in India, is the most humane — this mode 
of execution is sure, quick, and therefore nearly painless ; at 
the same time the moral impression produced by it is very 
great, and well suited to the spirit of contemporary law. 

The next most humane method of execution is by hang- 
ing^ an old expedient, very much resorted to in Russia in 
modern times (94, Ji). This method is inferior to the 
former, because death is more Hngering and cruel. But 
still it is an advance upon the very old system of crucifixion 
much practised by the Romans (94,/). By this latter 
the man who violated the law was nailed to the wood of the 
cross, and hung there often many days, during which time 
his sufferings must have been terrible. 



I. The Tomb of Abraham. 

No. I. 

This tomb lies in Hebron, one of the oldest cities in the 
world. Here Abraham was visited by the three travellers 
who predicted the birth of Isaac and the destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah. Besides Sarah and Abraham him- 
self, Isaac, his wife Rebecca, and many other patriarchs, are 
buried here. Hither, too, was brought from Egypt the 
embalmed body of Jacob, and it is probable that the mummy 
is still in a state of good preservation. 

This place, containing undoubtedly the true tombs, has 




been held in great veneiation from the earliest times by 
Jews, Mohammedans, and Christians. The upper part has 
minarets of later Mohammedan workmanship ; it is only 
below, where the stones are blackened by age, that the wall 
of David's time begins. The sketch is taken from the roof 
of a neighboring house behind ; it was impossible to make 
a more finished picture as the population is most fanatical, 
and looks upon all attempts at sketching as a profanation 
of the holy site. They threw stones at us. Christians are 
very seldom allowed to enter the mosque (the Prince of 
Wales was allowed to enter in 1862), and in the Grotto itself 
no Christian traveller has ever been admitted. The Rabbi 
Benjamin, who lived in the twelfth century, affirms that he 
saw the real. graves of the patriarchs. 

2. Bethel. 

Interesting remains of a cistern, probably of Jewish origin. 
On the heights, where are some Roman ruins, Abraham 
fed his flocks, and here he divided them with his nephew 
Lot. Here Jacob slept, as the Arabs sleep now, with a stone 
for his pillow, and saw in a dream a ladder reaching to 
heaven, with angels ascending and descending. Here he 
raised an altar on the place where God spoke to him, and 
on this spot was afterwards raised a temple, and a city builty 
which, according to Jewish tradition, was so large that 
when the Romans broke in on one side, feasts and weddings 
were being celebrated in perfect tranquillity on the other (?). 
At the present day there is nothing but a miserable village 
near the cistern. 

3. The Dead Sea. 

View from the foot of Mount Quarantania, in a grotto of 
which, according to the tradition, Christ fasted and prayed 
forty days. 

Only the northern part of the Dead Sea is seen from here, 




not the southern part, where, according to another tradition, 
Sodom and Gomorrah were situated. We are not told how 
these two cities perished ; but it may be supposed that the 
bitumen, of which there are quantities in the neighborhood, 
took fire spontaneously, and as the houses, like the cele- 
brated tower of Babel, were probably built of the same 
inflammable material, the two places would in one minute 
have been transformed into an immense brazier. A vol- 
canic eruption, ordinarily followed by earthquakes, would 
probably have made the catastrophe still more complete and 
terrible. Vegetation was destroyed, and the waters of the 
lake subsided. These are so highly impregnated with salt 
(more than 30 per cent.) as to keep men's bodies afloat, and 
no fish or living creature can exist in them. Ducks and 
other aquatic birds may be seen resting on the surface for 
awhile, but not for long ; and the shores and surrounding 
country are wilder and more desolate than the salt lakes in 
Western Tibet and the region near Ladak. 

Behind the Dead Sea, as shown on the study, are the 
Moabite mountains ; on the right, some distance off, is the 
place where Moses died after seeing the Promised Land 
from afar, and there he is probably buried, though the Mus- 
sulmans hold another site in veneration, on the opposite 
shore, as the supposed place of his sepulture. To the left 
of the range are the passes by which the Israelites entered 
the valley of the Jordan. In the foreground of the picture 
a green spot marks the valley of Jericho, famed in olden 
times for its beautiful gardens, but now a wilderness, and a 
breeding place of scorpions. Here was the Jericho of 
Christ's time ; the earlier city spoken of by the prophets was 
more to the left. 

4. Jacob's Well. 

The spot of land oi) which the well is dug was granted by 
^he patriarch to his son Joseph. It lies in a deep valley at 




the foot of Mount Gerizira, before the entrance to the pass 
of Nablus, the ancient Sikkhim, once the capital of Samaria. 

The ground over the well is raised, a Crusaders* church 
having once stood there ; but of this nothing remains but a 
half-ruined arch over the well itself. 

This is doubtless the well at which Christ was resting 
when he conversed with the woman of Samaria. " What 
might have been our Saviour's thoughts as He sat thus at 
the well, wearied with His journey ? Perhaps He was 
thinking of Abraham, who built his first altar in the land in 
this opening of the plain (Gen. xi., 6), or of Jacob, whose 
only possession in the Land of Promise was here (xxxiii., 19). 
And even this possession, bought and paid for as it had 
been, was taken from him by the Amorites. But he recon- 
quered it from them — * I took it out of the hand of the 
Amorite with my sword and my bow,* said the dying 
patriarch (Gen. xlviii., 22) — and left it to Joseph, who long 
years afterwards gave commandment concerning his bones, 
which were brought from Egypt and buried here (Joshua 
xxiv., 32). Perhaps Christ thought of Joseph wandering in 
that very field in search of his brethren (Gen. xxxvii., 15), 
and saw in the persecution of his brethren and the final 
victory of the beloved son, one of the divine pictures of the 
past, typical of Himself ; or perhaps his thoughts were 
dwelling upon that first gathering of all Israel when first 
they came into the land. ..." {Hodder,) 

5. The Tomb of Joseph. 

Not far from the well is in all probability the real burial 
place of the celebrated minister of Pharaoh. It is well 
known that Joseph on his deathbed took the oath of the 
children of Israel, saying, ** God will surely visit you, and ye 
shall carry up my bones from hence " (Gen. 1., 25). " And 
the bones of Joseph which the children of Israel brought up 




out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground 
which Jacob bought of the sons of Kamor, the father of 
Shechem. ..." (Joshua xxiv., 32). 

6. Gilgal. 

The place in the Jordan valley where, as it is said, the 
Israelites, after crossing this river, erected the twelve stones 
and rested the first time in the Promised Land the Ark of 
the Covenant (Joshua iv., 19, 20). Here they celebrated for 
the first time the Passover. Here Saul was anointed king. 
Here, too, the tribe of Judah welcomed David on his return 
from exile. 

In the time of the early Christians there was a church 
here dedicated to the Archangel Michael, who appeared to 
Joshua at this spot — "a man over against him with his 
sword tirawn in his hand, and Joshua went to him and said, 
* Art thou for us or for our adversaries ? * And he said, * Nay, 
but as captain of the host of the Lord am I now come * " 
(Joshua v., 19), and inspired the Jews with courage to attack 

A solitary tamarisk now marks the spot, and some hillocks 
indicate the sites of Christian churches. 

7. Samuel's Tomb. 

It is not well known if this really be the burial-place of 
the great Israelitish judge. The Mohammedans hold the 
place in the greatest honor, and visit it in thousands. The 
tomb occupies a commanding site in the neighborhood of 
Jerusalem. Here the Israelites assembled at Samuel's call 
to make war against the Philistines, and here they elected 
their first king. 

All the neighboring heights and valleys are full of his- 
torical reminiscences. The mount slopes down to the valley 
of Gabaon (Gibeon) where, before the battle between the 




tribes of Judah and Benjamin, twelve youths from either 
side fought with such ardor that they all fell dead (2 Samuel 
ii., 16). 

In Gabaon also, Solomon sacrificed to God full a thousand 
men. Here the Lord appeared to him in a dream, promising 
to fulfil the wish of his heart, and to Solomon's desire for 
wisdom, joined riches and glory. Near here is the cele- 
brated valley of Bethhoron, where the Israelites, under 
Joshua, vanquished the Amorites. He applied to the Lord, 
and cried out before the whole of Israel, ** Sun, stand thou 
still upon Gibeon, and thou. Moon, in the valley of Ajalon " 
(Joshua X., 12). And the sun stood still and the moon 
stayed till Adonizedec, King of Jerusalem, was vanquished. 

8. Gideon's Spring. 

The rocky cavern whence issues water of the fountain, 
clear as crystal. Near this place a celebrated battle wa^ 

No. 8. 

fought ; Gideon with his three hundred warriors vanquished 
the host of the Midianites. At this spring he tried the 




bearing of his warriors by taking those only with him in his 
dangerous night expedition who, on coming to the spring 
after the hard day's march, drank water with the hands, and 
not those who bowed on the knees and drank with the 
nouth only. 

It was night, and the Midianites were asleep. "The 
Midianites and the Amalekites and all the children of the 
East lay along in the valleys like grasshoppers for multitude, 
and their camels were without number as the sand by the 
sea-side for multitude. . . . And he divided the three 
hundred men into three companies, and he put a trumpet in 
every man's hand, with empty pitchers, and lamps within the 
pitchers" (Judges vii., 12, 16). So he drew near the camp 
of the Midianites. And at the moment the trumpets were 
blown and the pitchers broken, the Israelites holding the 
lamps with their left hands and the trumpets with their 
right, fell upon the panic-stricken foe with the cry, ** The 
sword of the Lord and of Gideon " (Judges chap. vii.). 

9. The Valley of Ezdraelon. 

This celebrated valley often witnessed the Israelitish 
struggles. On the right is Mount Gilboa, where Saul and 
his three sons were killed. On the left of Gilboa are the 
ruins of Jezreel, the residence of Ahab and Jezebel, where 
the latter was thrown from a window to' the dogs. On the 
left of the small study one may see little Hermon, where 
the Philistines pitched camp before the battle against 
Saul ; the Israelites occupied a position under Gilboa, near 
Gideon's spring ; their position was bad, because the ground 
slopes towards the fountain, and thus gave the advantage to 
the Philistines. These put the Israelites to flight at once, 
so that the chief slaughter was probably on the heights, 
where the following day the bodies of Saul and his sons 
were found. 




10. The Cave Endor. 

Before the battle, as we know, Saul went to consult the 
Witch of Endor. His mission was not without danger, as 
the village of Endor is on the north side of little Herman, 
at the foot of which was the camp of the Philistines. Saul 
turned to the right, and so could reach Endor " in two 

No.' lo. 

hours' time.*' The witch predicted to the King his 
defeat and death. "And to-morrow shalt thou and thy 
sons be with me : " (said the spirit of Samuel to the King), 
" the Lord also shall deliver the host of Israel into the 
hands of the Philistines " (i Samuel xxviii., 19). 




In the now very dirty village of Endor there are many 
caverns — possibly one of these was inhabited by the witch. 
Before the entrance of the cave here represented, traces of 
a threshold may be seen ; inside is a large room and another 
smaller beyond. 

II. Beisan (Beth-shan). 

The small green hill, seen in the distance, was the acrop- 
olis of an inaccessible fortress of the Philistines, the only 
one which the Israelites could never capture. The citadel 
stood on the summit of the hill, and from a near point of 
view appears to be naturally of uncommon strength. Deep 
ditches and a wall surround it. The principal gates, now 
almost in ruins, may still be seen on the north side, and it is 
not improbable that on these very gates were suspended the 
bodies of Saul and Jonathan, killed on the adjacent heights 
of Gilboa. " And it came to pass on the morrow, when the 
Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and 
his three sons fallen in Mount Gilboa. And they cut ofif 
his head and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land 
of the Philistines round about, to publish it in the house of 
their idols and among the people. And they put his armour 
m the house of Ashtaroth, and they fastened his body to 
the wall of Beth-shan " (i Samuel xxxi., 8-io). 

12. Beisan (Beth-shan) Theatre. 

The same hill fonns one side of a Roman theater, now 
completely overgrown with bushess but the doors and pas- 
sages are still well preserved. The building is semi-circular 
and entirely built of blocks of basalt. A great number of 
Christians, especially during the reign of Julian, were torn 
to pieces here by wild beasts. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


13. Solomon's Wall. 

The six lower ranges of these splendid stones are beyond 
doubt of the time of David and Solomon, the next rows 
may be attributed to Herod, while the upper and smallest 
date from the Mohammedan period. This part of the great 
wall which surrounded the Temple is called The Wailing 
Place, because the Jews for a long time past have been 
in the habit of coming hither — at first once a year on the 
anniversary of the destruction of Jerusalem (on payment of 
a heavy tax to the Mussulman authorities), and in more 
recent days as frequently as they wished — to bewail their 
past greatness and present dispersion. Seldom can any- 
thing more touching be seen. The Jews of both sexes and 
of all ages arrive from all parts of the world to pray and 
weep with loud cries, and literally to wash with their tears 
the sacred stones ! On Friday the place is quite full of 
people from Palestine, Central Asia, India, Europe and 
especially from Russia — all praying in the most plaintive 
tones, beating their breasts, rocking their bodies to and fro, 
or leaning motionless against the stones and weeping, weep» 
ing, weeping ! 

The Jews seem to bring all their sorrows and misfortunes 
to this place. A woman approaches with unsteady gai^-. 
throws herself against the wall, and in an agonized voice 
implores God to give her back her dead child. Farther on 
two Jews, wearied with praying, are talking business. ** Have 
you bought ? What have you paid ? Too dear ! " and so 
on. After this interlide they recommence praying and 

An old rabbi is sitting in his corner on a stone or an 
empty wine box with Ihe inevitable " Bordeaux " mark, and 
with eyes full of tears reads in his book : " O God, the 
heathen are come into thine inheritance ; thy holy temple 
have they defiled ; they have laid Jerusalem in heaps. . . . 






We are become a reproach to our neighbours, a scorn and 
derision to them that are round about us. How long, Lord? 
Will'st thou be angry with us for ever ! Shall thy jealousy 
bum like fire ? " 

Fragments of an interesting litany are often sung here : 


Reader: Because of the palace which is deserted, 

People : We sit alone and weep. 

Reader: Because of the Temple which is destroyed, 

Because of the walls which are broken down. 

Because of our greatness which is departed, 

Because of the precious stones of the Temple ground to 

Because of our priests who have erred aqrf gone astray. 
Because of our kings who have contemned God, 

People : We sit alone and weep. 

Reader: We beseech Thee, have mercy on Zion. 
People : And gather together the children of Jerusalem. 
Reader : Make speed, make speed, O Deliverer of Zion. 
People : Speak after the heart of Jerusalem. 
Reader : Let Zion be girded with beauty and with majesty. 
People : Show favour unto Jerusalem. 
Reader : Let Zion find again her kings. 
People : Comfort those who mourn over Jerusalem. 
Reader : Let peace and joy return to Jerusalem. 
People : Let the branch of Jerusalem put forth and bud. 

14. Business and Prayers. 

15. The Spring of Elisha. 

Most probably the spring whose bitter water the prophet 
made sweet in answer to the complaint of the inhabitants : 
'* And the men of the city said unta Elisha, Behold, I pray 
thee, the situation of this city is pleasant, as my Lord seeth ; 
but the water is naught and the ground barren. And he 
said, bring me a new cruse, and put salt therein. And they 




brought it to him. And he went forth unto the spring of 
the waters and cast the salt in there, and said, Thus saith the 
Lord, I have healed these waters ; there shall not be from 
them any more death or barren land. So the waters were 
healed unto this day, according to the saying of Elisha 
which he spake '* (2 Kings ii., 19-23). 

Under the spring are the remains of a wall of Roman 
date. It is generally admitted that Herod drowned in this 
spring his relative Aristobulus, upon whom the people looked 
as his successor. 

16. Ruins of a Samaritan Temple at Shechem. 

When the Jews returned from captivity in Babylon, the 
Samaritans, who " feared the Lord but served their own 
gods," desired to assist them in rebuilding the temple but 
were refused. They then resolved to build one for them- 
selves on Mount Gerizim, and their hostility to^the Jews 
increased to such a point that it became a sin to extend the 
rites of hospitality on either side, and the words of the 
woman of Samaria to Christ expressed well the feeling 
which afterwards existed between the two races : " How is 
it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me who am a 
woman of Samaria ? for the Jews have no dealings with the 
Samaritans.'' The temple on Mount Gerizim was destroyed 
later, and on the place where it stood, probably out of the 
same materials, was built a church dedicated to the Virgin, 
also now in ruins. The walls are thick and the stones very 
huge. Some of these stones, of unusual size, are identified, 
according to the legend, with the twelve stones brought from 
the Jordan and erected at Gilgal as a memorial, but this is 
highly improbable. Even more dubious is the assertion of 
the Samaritans that Abraham offered up Isaac at this spot, 
and that Jacob had here the vision of the heavenly ladder, 
etc.. etc. 




The Samaritans to the present day celebrate their Pass- 
over here with offerings, and the entire ceremonial as in 
olden times. It may be remarked that their numbers are 
very small, some fifty souls at the most, and they are con- 
stantly diminishing. I have not had the opportunity of 
sketching one of their types, but find them very like the 
Jews in appearance. The summit of Mount Gerizim is 
nearly three thousand feet above sea level. The view from 
the table land and the ruins is beautiful. On one side may 
be seen the Mediterranean, and on the other, the snowy 
crest of Hermon. 

17. An Old Street in Samaria, Sebastia. 

Under the reign of Asa, King of Judah, Omri, King of 
Israel, bought the hill Samaria, for two talents of silver, built 
a city, and removed thither his residence from Shechem, 
His son Ahab, who married Jezebel, introduced again the 
worship oTBaal. " And he reared up an altar for Baal, in the 
house of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab 
made a grove, and Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God 
of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were 
before him*' (i Kings xvi., 30-32). At a later date the 
miracles of Elisha took place here. 

Herod entirely rebuilt the city, embellished it and called 
it, in honor of the Emperor Agustus, Sebastia. The columns 
now remaining belong to this period. These noble sur- 
vivors of the past magnificence of the place, rearing aloft 
above the corn-fields, appeal powerfully to the imagination. 
Looking upon the desolate scene one is reminded of the 
words of the prophecy : " Samaria shall become desolate for 
she hath rebelled against her God " (Hosea xiii., 1 6). " I will 
make Samaria as an heap of the field and as plantings of a vine- 
yard, and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley, 
and I will discover the foundations thereof" (Micah i., 6).. 




i8. Entrance to the Tombs of the Kings. 

Near Jerusalem, on the road to Damascus, a large 
monumental staircase, cut in the rock, leads to an entrance 
which was lately thoroughly excavated. (It is easy to see 
on the picture that part of the rock which remained for 
centuries under the earth.) 

This entrance opens otf a large court, surrounded by 
rocks of very imposing character. The waters are led away 
to cisterns, which, like the whole work, are of a coarse but 
solid structure. 

19. Tombs of the Kings. 

In this court (see last picture) is a wide vestibule, 
formerly surported by two columns, of which next to 
nothing remains. Under the opening is a long sculptured 
frieze, of excellent taste, with the traditional bunch of grapes, 
emblem of the Promised Land. A fine cornice over it is 
unfortunately much injured. The learned Frenchman, De 
Saulcy, was of opinion that here were the tombs of the 
Israelite kings ; he supposed also that the sarcophagus 
which he found here was that of David ; but both suppo- 
sitions are incorrect, and now it is admitted that Helena, 
Princess of Adiabene, who became a convert to Judaism, was 
buried here with her family, about the beginning of our 

In the course of his excavations De Saulcy found here 
many urns, vases, and lamps of Roman date, some small 
vases of oriental alabaster, some caskets of precious stones 
and gold ornaments. He found also a room previously 
unknown, containing a sarcophagus with a human corpse 
inside. On first opening it the body was found well pre- 
served, but it crumbled away almost immediately. The 
tomb contains many low rooms surrounded by niches in 




which the bodies of Helena's numerous family were laid 
Most curious is the entrance stone, so constructed that a 
thief or any one who did not know the secret might enter, 
but could not come out. He would be buried alive ! 

20. A Fountain near Nazareth. 

A very old one, dating from the early years of our era, 
and doubtless visited by Christ and His brethren on their 
way to and from Nazareth. It is half way between 
Nazareth and Kefr-Cama, the Cana of Galilee, where the 
miracle of turning water into wine was performed, and 
where are shown at the present day the very vessels which 
served for this miracle (!) 

21. That Part of Jordan where Christ was Baptized. 

The bed of the river is only about a hundred feet wide ; 
the stream, however is very rapid, and looks treacherous — 
nearly every year it carries off some careless worshippers, 
deceived by its quiet, calm surface. The shores are covered 
with willow, tamarisk, and oleander trees, in whose thickets 
lurk the wild boar, the panther, and occasionally a Bedouin 
robber. As in the times of Christ, this locality is the 
resort of runaways and fugirives from the police, so that it 
is never considered quite safe. Many efforts have been 
made to mark out the exact place where the Israelites 
crossed the Jordan, but the question is far from decided even 
now, the river having several times changed its bed. 

It was hereabouts that the prophet Elijah divided the 
waters, crossed the dry bed of the river, and was taken up 
to heaven. Here, too, Elisha divided the river with the 
mantle of his master and the words : " Where is the God of 
Elijah ! *' The main interest, however, centres round one 
of the greatest events of the New Testament, the baptism of 




Christ by John, which according to tradition took place 
here. " Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto 
John, to be baptized of him/' "And Jesus when he was 
baptized, went up straightway out of the water : and lo, the 
heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the spirit of 
God descending like a dove and lighting upon him : and lo, 
a voice from heaven, saying. This is my beloved Son in 
whom I am well pleased " (Matt, iii , 13, 16, 17). 

Every year great numbers of worshippers visit the river : 
Greeks, Russians, and others precisely at this spot, the 
Latins a little farther down. The former gather in great 
caravans, and on the i8th January, men and women old 
and young, sink into the holy stream, where a strong rope is 
fastened for the purpose. Nobody pays any attention to 
personal appearance after this bath, salvation being the only 
thought of the moment. 

22. Capernaum (Tell-Hum). 

A melancholy place on the north coast of the Sea of 
Tiberias. Immediately behind the little hut shown on the 
study are ruins of a most imposing character, probably the 
finest both in size and beauty of workmanship to be found 
in Palestine. Overgrown with tall grass and weeds are 
lying huge blocks of white marble splendidly ornamented, 
capitals of pillars, architraves, etc. 

Wilson says in his book : If Tell-Hum be Capernaum, 
this is without a doubt the synagogue built by the Roman 
centurion, and one of the most sacred places on earth. It 
was in this building that our Lord gave the discussion on 
the Bread of Life (John vi.). " These things said he in the 
synagogue as he taught in Capernaum." In Capernaum 
Christ passed three years of his life and had "his own 
house.** " And leaving Nazareth he came and dwelt in 
Capernaum which is upon the sea-coast, in the borders of 




Zabulon and Nephthalim ; that it might be fulfilled which 
was spoken by Esias the prophet, saying : The land of 
Zabulon and the land of Nephthalim by the way of the sea, 
beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles ; the people which 
sat in darkness saw great light ; and to them which sat in 
the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up " (Matt, 
iv., 13-16). 

Among the miracles performed here were the healing the 
paralyzed man, the healing of the mother-in-law of the 
Apostle Peter, of the centurion's servant, and so on. 

It has been supposed that these are the ruins of Chorszin, 
but tradition is strongly against this idea. 

23. Bethsaida. 

The home of the Apostles Peter, Andrew, Philip, James, 
and John. " And is came to pass that as the people pressed 
upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of 
Gennesaret and saw two ships standing by the lake ; but 
the fishermen were gone out of them and were washing 
their nets " (Luke v., i). Reentered into Simon's ship and 
tajight the people on shore, and afterward performed the 
miracle of the draught of fishes which astonished Peter, 
James, and John ; and the Master said unto them : " Fear 
not, from henceforth thou shalt catch men. And when 
they had brought their ships to shore, they forsook all and 
followed Him ** (Luke v., 11). Here the blind man received 
his sight, and on a height in the vicinity was performed the 
miracle of the multiplication of loaves. 

No other part of the sea-coast is so convenient for fishing 
as this small bay with its low sandy bank. Even now 
fishermen are living here. On our demand they immedi- 
ately drew their nets and caught some fine fish. Here and 
there are seen heights of waste ground under which would 
probably be found some interesting remains. 




24. Mount Tabor. 

Of very regular form, rises to the height of 2,362 feet 
above sea-level. On the summit are ruins of a fortress of 
ancient date, so that it is nearly impossible to suppose that 
the Saviour chose this spot for the transfiguration ; indeed, 
it is only from the time of Jerome, or the fourth century, 
that Tabor is accepted as the place of the miracle which, 
with more probability, may be assigned to any other " high 
mountain apart," the only words of the New Testament 
indicating the place of the event. 

25. The Summit of Tabor. 

There are ruins of two churches of the Crusaders' time. 
The Catholic monks to whom they belong intend to restore 
the once splendid buildings. The view from this point is 

26. Entrance to the Grotto of the Mount of 

From time out of mind this mountain was pierced with 
grottoes of anchorites, and there is a very probable tradi- 
tion, according to which Christ passed in one of these grot- 
toes His forty days of fasting and prayer. On the summit, 
at the place where it is said our Saviour was tempted by 
the devil, are still the ruins of a church attributed to the 
Empress Helena : '' And the devil taking him up into a 
high mountain showed unto him all the kingdoms of the 
world in a moment of time." The entrance to the grotto 
is half-way up the mountain. A road now is made instead 
of the old path from which pilgrims sometimes fell into the 
abyss below. 

A Greek monk is the only inhabitant of this grotto. 
When not engaged in prayer he diverts himself by feeding 



No. 26. 




the only living creatures of the neighborhood — blackbirds, 
which catch the bits of dried fruits thrown to them. 

27. The Mount of Temptation by Night. 

In the night, when a light burns in the grotto, the 
imagination is carried back 1854 years, when the Great 
Anchorite prepared His poor food, or prayed and meditated 
on His future deeds and destiny. More than once, prob- 
ably, the devil came to tempt Him and make Him doubt 
whether the only possible way before Him was that which 
led through a shameful death on the Cross. 

28. Kitchen of the Monks in the Grotto. 

The hermit monks are most abstemious ; their diet con- 
sisting of black bread of a very coarse kind, beans, onions, 
garlic, and olives. They nevertheless find means to help 
the poor Bedouins in their necessities. 

29. Refectory of the Grotto. 

The walls were once covered with frescoes, but of these 
scarcely anything remains. A door opens on a balcony 
whence there is a really charming and interesting view over 
the Jordan valley. Just in front is Jericho ; further on d 
line of vegetation shows the direction of the Jordan, with 
the monastery of St. John. On the right is the Dead Sea, 
with the monastery holy Gerasimus, built, it is believed 
on the spot where the Virgin Mary rested on her way to 
Egypt (?). On the left is the Jordan valley with the road 
leading to Tiberias and the mountains of Samaria. 

30. The part of the Grotto which according to tra- 
dition dates from the time of Christ. 

From early Christian times this part of the grotto was 
converted into a chapel and was venerated as the place 




where our Saviour set the example of retreat, fasting and 
penitence. " And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost 
returned from Jordan and was led by the spirit into the 
wilderness, being forty days tempted by the devil. And in 
those days he did eat nothing ; and when they were ended 
he afterward hungered." (Luke iv., 1-2.) 

31. The Cupola of the Holy Sepulchre in Jeru- 


This was many times destroyed/ by fire and rebuilt. As it 
stands at present it was erected at the cost of the Russian, 
French, and Turkish governments in 1869. The diameter 
of the cupola is 78.7 feet. 

On the western side of the Sepulchre Church the ruins 
of the Basilica of the Emperor Constantine were discovered 
some years ago by the Russian archimandrite, Antonin, and 
apparently also the foundation of a city gate, by which pos- 
sibly our Saviour was led to execution. 

32. One of the old Jewish Tombs near Jerusalem. 

An extremely low entrance leads to a small, very low 
room in tbe rock, wherein are many niches for corpses. In 
one of such niches, never before used, was interred the 
body of Christ, in a rock near Golgotha where Joseph of 
Arimathea, possibly, had his family tomb. The entrance 
was usually closed with a big stone, and it was impossible 
to enter or come out otherwise than by the small aperture 
seen on the study. 

Such are all the tombs of those times; there was no 
other style ; and if at present the grave of our Saviour has 
the form of a box, it is because the rock over it has been 
broken off, partly for the necessities of worship, partly by 
the worshipers themselves for relics. 




33- Mount Chattin. 

This is the summit of a rock on the way from Nazareth 
to Tiberias, remarkable as the scene of the last battle fought 
between the Crusaders and the Mussulmans, which decided 
the fate of Christendom in the Holy Land. Seven hundred 
years ago, on. the 14th July, 1187, Saladin vanquished the 
Christians under the command of King Lusinian, who 
allowed himself to be enticed to this rock from a good 
position he had occupied on the road to Nazareth. After a 
march of twenty-four hours, during which the knights were 
harassed by heat, hunger, thirst, and constant alarms, the 
Christian army took up their position for the night on this 
field, and were at once surrounded by the enemy, so that 
by the following morning the issue of the battle was already 
decided. The heavily armed and wearied knights on their 
tired horses could not withstand the light bodies of Arabs, 
and were very soon forced to retire to the summit of the rock 
(shown on the sketch). Here the king, surrounded by the 
clergy, high officials, and officers, surrendered after a desper- 
ate defense. 

34. The Hermits on the Jordan. 

These hermits, who are not numerous, live partly on the 
shore itself, partly on the sandstone hills some distance off, 
near the monastery of St. John. They excavate caves with 
two or three rooms in each, so small that it is difficult to 
turn round in them. These holes are usually covered with 
images, crosses, etc. ; they are warm in winter and cool in 
summer. The only inconvenience is the great number of 
mosquitoes of all sizes, down to some so small as to be nearly 
imperceptible. Those who inhabit caves on the shores 
complain of toads, snakes and other reptiles. The occupa- 
tions of the hermits are praying, fishing, and turning crosses 




of sandal-wood, or tying woolen chaplets, etc., these objects 
being gladly bought by worshipers visiting the Sacred 

35. Portrait of a Hermit. 

Still a young man, of steady appearance. He has served 
in the Church of Golgotha, but was obliged to abandon it, 
in order to avoid the example of the other monks in their 
free manners with the female worshipers. 

36. A Russian Hermit. 

Father Vassian from Kamenetz Podolsk, in South Russia, 
formerly a miller by profession, is waiting for an opportunity 
to build a good mill for some cloister, and afterward to die 
in peace near the Sacred River. He was particularly pleased 
with the chaplets on the sketch, which serve him for his 
prayers, three times a day, morning, evening, and midnight, 
when he gives 300 points to Christ, 300 to the Virgin Mary, 
200 to the Angels, Archangels, Prophets, and Apostles, and 
200 to all the Saints ! His belief is great and sincere, but 
the devil evidently tempts him, as he asked me in confidence, 
" If the Tsar would see his portrait, and possibly give him 
some gratification.'* 

37. His Lodging. 

On the summit of a hill, with a small canopy over the 
entrance. Passing worshipers lay at his door some trifling 
gift, such as biscuits or copper money. 

St. John the Baptist probably lived in a similar hole. 
According to tradition he led a wandering life, and had two 
or three refuges on the other side of the river, more or less 
remote, according as his relations happened to be with the 



Na 38. 

38. Portrait of a Jewish Rabbi. 

A Rabbi from the Western Provinces of Russia. The 
Jews, especially the aged, come in great numbers to the 
Holy City, in order to pass in it their last years, and to be 




buried in the valley of Jehosaphat, whence they believe they 
will be called before others to the future life. The Jewish 
population of Jerusalem has largely increased in latter years, 
partly because of the great number of charitable institutions 
built and supported by Montefiore, the Rothschilds, and 
some other banker-kings. The Turkish government was 
so much alarmed by this invasion of Jews, that it issued an 
order forbidding them to remain in the Holy Land more 
than thirty days, and to settle there. The Turks are evi- 
dently afraid that the Promised Land will again pass into 
the possession of the Jews — and this will certainly happen 
some day. 

This portrait was only obtained under a promise that it 
should not be hung in a Christian church. 

39. A Rabbi. 


Stipulated for a glass of brandy at each sitting. 

40. A RabbL 

41. Portrait of an Arab. 

The Arabs came here with the Kalifs as conquerors. They 
have a good type, are hospitable, and belong mostly to the 
Sunni sect, of the Mohammedan religion. There are, how- 
ever, many Christians now among them, large sums of money 
having been spent every year by different Christian sects 
to attract Arab families to their faith. Often after having 
accepted help from one community, the Arab returns to his 
former faith, or allows himself to be converted to another 
religion where the reward is more substantial. This rivalry 
between the different Christian faiths is the cause of great 
corruption in the character of modem Arabs in the Holy 




42. An Arab Woman. 

The type of the Arab woman may be called beautiful. It 
is common to meet women at places of public resort of 
striking beauty ; but, like all Oriental women, they grow old 
very early. The poorer Arab women work very hard, while 
the rich look upon every kind of work as degrading, and 
pass their days in incessant chatter. 

43. A Court of a House in Jerusalem. 

A characteristic old building near Solomon's Wall, such 
as are ordinarily occupied by two or three families, who are 
constantly quarreling among themselves. While engaged 
at my work, I heard an incessant clatter proceeding from 
the shrill voices of women, mingled with occasional cries of 
children, the men very seldom interfering in these disputes. 
To make matters worse, the atmosphere in these picturesque 
courts was often insupportable from bad smells, and many 
of the children were suffering from different contagious dis- 
orders, such as small-pox. 

44. A Greek Monk. 

45. The Holy Family, as I understand it, according 
to the following texts of the Gospel. 

Matthew i., 25 ; xii., 46, 47, 48 ; xiii., 55, 56. — Mark iii.j 
3i> 32, 33^ 34, 55 ; vi., 3-— John ii., 12 ; vii., 3, 5, 10. 

46. Jesus with John the Baptist on the Jordan. 

" Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John to 
be baptised of him " (Matthew iii., 13). John vowed him- 
self to the Lord ; he neither cut his hair nor drank wine ; 
from his youth he withdrew to the desert, where he lived in 
the most ascetic manner. "And John was clothed with 







camels* hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins, and 
he did eat locusts and wild honey " (Mark i., 6). 

He was an ascetic, resembling those ascetics who may still 
be seen in India, whence most probably the type came over 
to Judaea. The people regarded him as a Prophet or even 
as a Messiah, and for a long time the Priests and the 
Pharisees dared not undertake anything against him, not- 
withstanding his bold and loud condemnations of their life 
and rules. 

The people streamed to him to be baptised, as the sign of 
the adoption of the new principles. Christ, who at that 
time was very little known, came also to John, and was 
baptised with the others. 

" The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and 
saith, * Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin 
of the world. This is he of whom I said, after me cometh 
a man which is preferred before me, for he was before me ' " 
(John i., 29, 30). *' Now when John had heard in the prison 
the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples and said 
unto him, * Art thou He that should come, or do we look 
for another ' " (Matthew xi., 2, 3). " And as they departed, 
Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, 
* What went ye out into the wilderness to see ? . . . A 
prophet ? Yea, I say unto you and more than a prophet. 
For this is he of whom it is written ' " (Matthew xi., 7, 9, loj. 

47. Jesus in the Desert. 

" The spirit driveth him into the wilderness, and he was 
there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan *' 
(Mark i., 12, 13). 

Possibly Christ, on returning from Jordan, remained forty 
days in the desert in one of the numerous old grottoes of the 
so-called Mount Quarantania, and left the retreat only after 
bearing of John's imprisonment. Many times afterwards He 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




retired to the desert, partly for safety, partly to meditate and 
compose his thoughts. . . . 

From the statement of contemporaries it is known that 
our Saviour had a handsome figure, beautiful blond hair — 
auburn, according to Bysantic tradition. 

He seldom smiled but was easily moved to tears. 

Women were greatly devoted to Him, and He was often 
followed by a number of them. His face was beautiful 
according to some, while the others testify quite to the con- 
trary (Tertullian). 

48. Christ on the Sea of Tiberias. 

Jesus went out of his house, and sat by the sea-side. 
And great multitudes were gathered unto him, so that he 
went into a ship and sat ; and the whole multitude stood on 
the shore ** (Matthew xiii., i, 2). 

" And it came to pass that as the people pressed upon him 
to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gen- 
nesaret. , . .'* (Luke v., i, 2, 3). 

49. The Prophecy. 

** Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of 
his* mighty works were done, because they repented not : 
" Woe unto thee, Chorazin ! woe unto thee, Bethsaida ! for 
if the mighty works which v/ere done in you, had been done 
in Tyra and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in 
sackcloth and ashes. But I say unto you, it shall be more 
tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment than 
for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto 
heaven, shall be brought down to hell, for if the mighty 
works which have been done in thee, had been done in 
Sodom, it would have remained unto this day. But I say 
unto you that it shall be more tolerable for the land of 




Sodom in the day of judgment than for thee " (Matt, xi., 

It is to be remarked that now not only in the desolation 
of these sites, but in the very dispute about their identity, 
it had indeed been "more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon " in 
the day of their earthly judgment than for those cities : the 
flames of Tyre and Sidon are preserved, their sites are 
unquestioned, but here the names are gone, and the cities 

50. The Future Emperor of India. 

When the Prince of Wales traveled through India the 
native chiefs vied with one another in the splendor and 
ceremony of their receptions. There might be seen con- 
spicuous red costumes by the side of picturesque remnants 
of mediaeval taste ; above all gleamed costly jewels, gold 
and silver. . . . When I came first to Jeypore I found 
that the houses were agreeably painted in different colors : 
green, blue, yellow ; but on returning to the spot later on, I 
was perfectly astonished : previous to the entrance of the 
Prince of Wales into his residence, the Maharajah of Jey- 
pore gave strict orders to strew with roses all the buildings 
of his town, without exception. 

51. The Window of Selim-Shisti's Monument. 

The great Mogul Akbar, the most powerful Indian 
chief, erected this monument over the remains of his friend 
and counsellor, Selim-Shisti, a man who led a most holy 
life, and whose memory is still, held in reverence by all the 
Mohammedans of India. This window, like the monument 
itself, is of pure white marble. On the veranda surround- 
ing it pilgrims converse with the descendants of the saint, 
who perform religious offices without being themselves in 
the least degree holy. 







52. The Gate of Allah-Uddin in Ancient Delhi. 

Has been built upwards of six hundred years, of red sand- 
stone admirably preserved. Court attendants, and grooms 
with horses, await the coming of their master. 

53. The House of Berbul in Futtehpore Sikri (in 
the neighborhood of Agra). 

So massive are the red stone buildings, so fine and deli- 
cate their details, that from the outside, as well as from the 
interior, the structure seems carved out of ivory. Raja 
Berbul, favorite of the great Moghul Akbar, was one of the 
adherents of the party who contemplated a fusion of Sara- 
cenic with Indian elements, and this building bears witness 
to his intentions. 

54. The Chief Mosque in Futtehpore Sikri 

Stands on the western side of an immense courtyard, sur- 
rounded by beautiful galleries, with many other mosques 
and enormous gates. 

Built after the pattern of the mosque in Mekka, erected 
over the grave of Mahomet, entrance to which is strictly 
forbidden to unbelievers. 

55. The Pearl Mosque in Agra. 

The temple is of white marble in Mauresque style, of very 
fine proportions. There are few or no ornaments, but the 
beauty of lines and of the material compensate for it. The 
mosque was built in the year 1654, at the time when the 
first signs of decay in the Mogul art began to be felt. 







56. Sunrise in the Himalayas. 

Opposite Darjiling. Sunrise and sunset in these moun- 
tains afford the most ravishing and magnificent sights which 
the brush can only approximately depict. 

One day I went out to make a sketch of the sunset. I 
prepared my palette, but the sight was so beautiful I waited, 
delayed the work in order to examine better the sight. 
Several thousand feet below me all was wrapt in a pure blue 
shadow ; the summits of the peaks were resplendent in pur- 
ple flames. I waited, and waited, and would not begin my 
sketch. " By and by," said I, ** I want to look at it still, it is 
so splendid ! " I continued to wait, and waited until the 
epd of the evening— until the sun was set, and the mountains 
were ei^loped in dark shadows. Then I shut up my paint- 


box ancW'eturned home. 

57. Th# same. 

58. The Taj in the Morning (from the Garden). 

59. The Taj in the Evening (from the Garden). 

60. The Taj in the Evening (from the River). 

The Taj is properly a monument erected by the Great 
Mogul, Shah Jihan, over the grave of his favorite wife. She 
died in full strength of youth and beauty, and the Great 
Mogul promised in memory of her to build such a monu- 
ment over her tomb that would surpass all the existing con- 
structions. And so he did. I must say that in my opinion 
there is nothing even in Europe which can surpass the Taj 
— this quiet, solemn, wonderful place of the last rest of a 
charming woman, who died giving birth to her first child, 
the future emperor. Built of white marble, it is decked from 
top to bottom with ornaments of lapis-lazuli, malachite, cor- 
nelians, and other precious stones. It is difficult to form an 




idea of the splendor of this building without seeing it 
From the garden it affords a particularly charming aspect^ 
where its beautiful lines and dazzling white marble are 
thrown into high relief by the dark green foliage. 

There were 20,000 men engaged upon it for seventeen 
years, and although the labor cost nothing, the sum of 
$20,000,000 was swallowed up by this building. 

The entrance door was made of massive silver, and an 
enormous diamond was placed on the tomb itself. One may 
remark, perhaps, that the middle cupola is a little too heavy, 
or that some other details could have been treated in another 
way, but taken in its ensemble, as I remarked somewhere 
before, Taj can be compared to a beautiful woman whom 
you make bold to criticise when she is absent, but in whose 
presence you can only say : Charming, charming, charming ! 

61. The Private Mosque of the Great Moguls in 
the Palace of Dehli. 

Surrounded from all sides with white marble walls, the 
mosque is strongly reflected — no dark shadows — fresh, cool, 
airy. I like the Moslem mosques ; the prayer is simple and 
not less solemn than that of the Christian's ; but the Deity is 
not represented there in any painted or sculptured form. 
You may feel that God is present at your prayer, but where 
is He ?— it is left to your soul to discover it. . . . 

62. Mount Kanchinjinga, from Darjiling in the 

63. Tibetan Lamas. 

Good-natured, voracious creatures, who never change 
their clothes, which therefore smell, and are full of insects. 
Nevertheless, all the higher Lamas are immortal, /. ^., their 
souls, according to the Buddhist belief, are immediately after 
death bom again in the bodies of little children. 




64. Hindu Workman. 

Down- trodden, poor beings, who can never quite satisfy 
their hunger. The Hindu is remarkable for his talent for 
any work requiring great patience. Builder of the greatest 
and most handsome monuments, accomplished workmen in 
the finest jewelry work, hard worker in every line — ^he lives 
on five cents a day, himself and family. When the hard 
time of famine comes on he only tightens his belt, compress- 
ing his stomach more and more every day. 

65. Bhutanese of Sikkhim in the Himalayas. 

The Bhutanese are of Mongol race ; an idle, quarrelsome, 
and extremely superstitious people. The tribe is closely 
connected with Thibet, properly speaking : and these men 
are very numerous in the Thibetan army, the English have 
to face in their present war. 

66. Bhutanese Girl. 

' 67. Bhutanese Woman. 

68. Hindu Mohammedan Workman. 

The Mohammedan Hindus are, probably in consequence 
of their warlike religion, not so apathetic as the Brahmans. 
Their religion allows the former to do many things forbid- 
den to the latter. 

69. Kanchinjinga, Pandim and other Mountains in 
in the Clouds. 

These effects of sun in India are simply astonishing — 
without seeing them it is difficult to have faith in the truth- 
fulness of the artist. 

70. Sunset in India. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


71. The Forgotten Soldier.* 

These lines are by the artist^ and are translated from the original by iV. H. S 

{fl) Hushed is the battle : silence fills 
Anew the hollows of the hills ; 
Save where, amid the rocks alone. 
Is feebly heard a dying groan. 

« « « * He « 

Above the topmost snowy height, 
A somber spot in azure light, 
On steady wing, intent on prey, 
A vulture wends its circling way. 

{ft) Far from its watch-place in the skies, 
A gleam of scarlet it espies. 
Amid the bushes, where the mist 
The forehead of the hill has kissed. 

Sweeps the vulture widely round, 
Sees what cumbereth the ground, 
Folds its pinions ; from afar 
Earthward drops — like a falling star. 

(c) Together to the banquet fly 

Its comrades, summoned by its cry ; 
With eager beaks and claws the troop 
Of vultures on the booty swoop. 

But hark ! fresh pinions cleave the air 
The eagles to the feast repair ; 
Above the dead, with hunger's rage. 
The rival bands in fight engage. 

How long the contest lasted none 
Can say, nor which the vict'ry won ; 
Only the hills, the battle o'er. 
Have seen the vulture wheel no more. 

^ « « « « * 

All in the mountains is at peace, 
There all things flourish, gleam, increase ; 
Day follows day, the years go by — 
The soldier's bones forgotten lie. 

* Only one of these lar^^e pictures could be exhibited here. 






72. In Bulgaria during the War (Outposts in 

the Balkans.) 

73. In Bulgaria after the War. 

74. Cossack Picket on the Danube. 

Pickets of Cossacks and Hussars were stationed along 
the left bank of the Danube opposite Rustchuk, before the 
Russians crossed this river. At each Cossack picket was a 
beacon with tarred straw twisted round it, to be lighted in 
case of alarm, in order that danger might be at once sig- 
nalled down the whole line. 

75 Skobeleff at Shipka. 

The day after the battle at Shipka, where the Turks under 
Vessel Pasha were surrounded and taken prisoners, Skobeleff 
reviewed his troops, and thanked them for the victory. The 
regiments were drawn up facing the Turkish forts, with 
their left flank on Mount St. Nicholas. Putting spurs to his 
horse, the general galloped down the line, and, waving his cap, 
shouted to the men : " In our country's name, on the part 
of our Sovereign, I thank you my comrades ! " It would 
be difficult to describe the enthusiasm that prevailed as the 
soldiers threw their caps in the air and cheered repeatedly, 
Skobeleff was evidently deeply moved, as I saw tears in his 
eyes. Indeed all were overjoyed at the success, every one 
kept holiday — except the dead, slain but yesterday, and still 
littering the ground before the trenches. 

76. The Earth Huts at Shipka. 

The road up the Shipka Pass reminded me of a village. 
On one side were the earth huts of the soldiers, with an 
occasional small house of a commanding officer ; on the 







Other a row of fir tops to show the direction of the road in 
misty weather. Having no warm clothing, the men covered 
themselves with anything they could get, mostly bits of tent 
canvas which served instead of overcoats. This was a very 
slight protection against the cold, and large numbers were 
frostbitten every day. The close earth huts swarmed with 
every species of insect, and though bullet-proof to some 
extent, afforded no shelter against artillery fire, particularly 
shells, which often burst through the roofs and killed every- 
body inside. It was dangerous to venture outside the huts, 
owing to the commanding positions held by the Turks, who 
enfiladed our men on three sides, and could pick them off 
with their rifle fire. It became particularly lively at meal 
times, when the rations were brought round in troikas (carts 
drawn by three horses) from the shelter of the hills, and 
now and again a shell would burst in the midst of a crowd 
surrounding one of these provision wagons, and confuse in 
one heap, cart, horses, and men. The water-bearers also 
suffered heavily, many of them never returning. All day 
long bullets were whizzing about, literally like flies ; every 
minute a shell would burst, now on this side, now on that. 
Well do I remember one day sitting down to sketch under 
cover of a Turkish bullet-proof block-house, and being 
obliged to leave my work unfinished, three shells in rapid 
succession having struck the roof, entered and broken every- 
thing, covering my palette thickly with dust and dirt. 

77. Snow Trenches on the Pass. 

The day of our crossing the Balkans, in order to guard 
against a possible flank attack, Skobeleff ordered trenches to 
be dug. The earth was so hard frozen, that it became 
necessary to throw up breastworks of snow, which lay so 
deep on the ground that the Turks never thought of attack- 
ing us, but only assembled in crowds in their positions on our 




front, on a level with us, evidently surprised at our move- 
ments in the deep snow, while the few shells fired from their 
batteries caused us no loss. That night the frost was intense, 
and our soldiers having nothing but their thin overcoats 
to wear (the warm clothing did not arrive till spring) strict 
orders were given in the regiments that every one should be 
kept awake. Slumber that night meant death. I remember 
trying to doze near the camp fire, protected with a number of 
warm wraps, yet in spite of all this I felt that I was freezing, 
and accordingly lit a cigar and waited by the fireside till it 
was time to march. 

78. *'A11 Quiet at Shipka ! " 

(Ail Quiet aiong the Potomac^ 

General Radetsky's report to the commander-in-chief : 
The daily losses from Turkish bullets were far exceeded by 
those from frost-bite. Nearly the whole of the 24th division 
was frost-bitten. Regiments were dreadfully reduced in 
strength ; in some companies only ten men and a few sub- 
alterns were left ; at length, the pitiable remnants were with- 
drawn from position. The General reported as usual, " All 
is quiet at Shipka ! " 

79. Before the Attack. 

The day on which the third attempt to storm Plevna took 
place was cloudy, and from early morning a fine rain fell, 
soaking the clayey soil, and making it impossible to walk 
much less to storm the heights. I remember the com- 
mander-in-chief exclaiming, as he clasped his forehead with 
both hands : " How will our men advance ? How can they 
march in such mire ? *' The attack, nevertheless, was not 
postponed, as it was the Emperor's birthday, and the gene- 
rals were inspecting their men and urging them to make a 
birthday present of Plevna to H.I.M. The troops lay down 
while awaiting the signal for the attack. ,,„,,, ,,GoogIe 


8o. The Emperor Alexander II. before Plevna. 

By the time I had made my way to headquarters I heard 
shouts, " Road, road ! " and at that minute a Cossack escort 
rode past, followed by an open carriage in which sat the 
Emperor. He greeted me with a ** Good morning, Verest- 
chagin." Shortly afterward prayers began at headquarters, 
the priest in trembling accents imploring God to " grant the 
vigtory and preserve the men/' . . . 

While we were yet on our knees, suddenly the crash of 
artillery fire and roll of musketry burst on our ears. This 
proved to be a mistake on the part of some of our forces 
who had anticipated the time fixed upon for the assault by 
four hours. After prayers were over breakfast was served, 
and during this meal His Majesty turned to us, goblet in 
hand, and said : "To the health of those now fighting there, 
hurrah ! " Our answering cheer was drowned in the din of 

The sky was heavily overcast, and the rain continued to fall, 
as the group of officers and others surrounding the Emperor 
watched with their field-glasses the course of the fighting, every 
now and then exchanging a few words of comment, and dis- 
cussing the probabilities of the situation. Meanwhile, he sat 
motionless on his camp-stool with his eyes fixed on the Turk- 
ish redoubts. The roar of artillery and rattle of small arms 
were unceasing. We heard distinctly the hurrahs of the 
Russians, and the Allah ! Allah ! of the Turks. At first 
the Turkish redoubts were almost silent, and many supposed 
them to be short of ammunition, but as our columns advanced, 
volley after volley poured forth and raked the storming bat- 
tallions with shells and grape-shot. We saw our advance 
checked, the ranks thrown into confusion, the lines broken. 
. . . Again they move forward with a cheer. . . . but their 
advance is slower. . . . they are disorganized. . . . Some 
stop. . , . their cheers sound faint and uncertain. . . , 



See ! they turn back. 
. . . they run. The 
field of battle is 
shrouded in smoke. 

8i. After the Bat- 

The following day, 
having learned from 
an aide-de-camp who 
had arrived from Gen- 
eral Skobeleff that of 
my two brothers who 
were with him, one 
had been killed and 
the other wounded, I 
set out with my wound 
still unhealed to reach 
the left flank, which 
was a long way off. I 
met numbers of 
wounded along the 
road, and on reaching 
the field-lazaret asked 
a doctor how many 
had passed through 
his hands. *' We have 
reached the seventh 
thousand," was his 
answer. Altogether 
1 8,000 men were 
placed hors de combat 
on the Russian side. 

The doctors M^orked 





with wonderful zeal and unselfishness, the services rendered 
by the Sisters of Mercy were beyond all praise, yet in 
spite of this, vast numbers remained for days together with 
their wounds undressed, without either food or drink ! 
All previous calculations and preparations were falsified by 
actual necessities. Orders had been given to prepare for 
three to four thousand wounded ; instead of this there were 
actually over 13,000. At the divisional hospital I visited, 
accommodation had been provided for 500 men, but several 
thousands were brought in, causing enormous over-pressure. 
In their anxiety that their wounds should be dressed, all 
crowded to the tents intended for the severely wounded only. 
At the entrance of one of these there is the figure 
of a man breathing heavily, convulsively. He com- 
manded the regiment which first entered the Turkish 
redoubt and was mortally wounded. He is left in peace 
with a gauze covering to keep off the flies adhering 
to his warm blood. Farther on is a general with a broken 
leg patiently awaiting the dresser, and inquiring of new- 
comers the position of affairs at the front. Some are beyond 
the surgeon's skill and the attendants are summoned to 
remove their bodies and make room for others. Their 
places are quickly filled. This time a wounded soldier is 
brought in, covered with a soiled cloak thrown negligently- 
over him ; beneath it what would be difficult to recognize 
as a living man. The face is of an ashen hue, the features 
distorted with agony, the eyes dull; he turns a fixed gaze 
upon the approaching surgeon who stoops and opens his 
clothes. . . . then lets them drop and passes on to the 
next : the wound is mortal, no time to waste over it. 
Without a sob, without a cry, every one waits his turn to 
have his wound dressed and to be sent home. In dry 
weather the wounded were comparatively better off ; during 
the rains, however, all these thousands, for whom there was 
no room in the tents, sat, stood, and lay in pools of water. 




82. Dressing the Wounded. 

The carts used in transporting the wounded were the same 
as those in which the supplies of rusks were brought to the 
army, and these were supplemented by local carts. After 
the third assault on Plevna the whole road from this town 
to the Danube was thronged by transport trains of these 
carts ; what with the primitive construction of the vehicles 
and the execrable roads, the agonies of the wounded were 
horrible beyond description, and the most trifling wounds 
gangrened and became mortal. During a removal from one 
hospital to another, lasting usually several days, in the heat 
and dust, all the wounds became full of worms, and the Sis- 
ters of Mercy had to display extraordinary fortitude in clean- 
ing, dressing, and healing all this. Whatever the behavior 
of women in other countries and other armies may be, I know 
not, but this I can say, that the Russian woman showed 
herself a true heroine in her devotion, her honor and 

83. The Turkish Hospital at Plevna. 

After the surrender of this town we found the whole 
of the principal street filled with hospitals ; the houses on 
both sides were crowded with sick and wounded. In the 
company of a doctor and another friend, I visited these 
*' hospitals." At the first gateway I met the owner of the 
house, and learned of him that there were thirty sick men in 
it, " but some," he added, "must have died.*' We entered. 
No words can express the horrors : the foetid air, the filth, 
the dirt, and in the midst of it all what a scene of death ! 
nothing but death ! The same thing in the next house, the 
third, fourth, tenth, twentieth, fiftieth — all alike. Now 
and again something stirred in a corner under a heap of 
rags, showing that life was not quite extinct. In one house 




1^.1 ni; 


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only a wounded Turk met us, with terribly inflamed eyes. 
He had heard approaching footsteps, and had probably 
wanted to meet us, but he was only able to stand by sup- 
porting himself against the wall, and mutter a few words 
between his teeth ; he could not articulate. In the panic 
of the last few days before the surrender of the town, and 
also afterwards, the Turks forgot and abandoned their sick 
and wounded ; the Turkish doctors and surgeons all dis- 
persed, and had to be caught and forcibly made to enter the 
hospitals. But it was almost a hopeless task, for this mass 
of brave men were beyond human aid. 

84. The Spy. 

** Come and see them leading away a spy," said General 
Skobeleff (father of my friend, Michael Skobeleff), to me. 
We seated ourselves on a bench opposite a house entered 
by Colonel P. of the staff, and an aide-de-camp of the com- 
mander-in-chief, who had just arrived from headquarters. 
Before the porch were posted soldiers with fixed bayonets, 
two in front and two on either side. The examination and 
interrogatories lasted some time, and half- an- hour must have 
clasped before we saw the figure of a tall, dark man on the 
threshold. He was handsomely dressed, and wore his cap 
a little on one side. At the sight of the soldiers he turned 
somewhat paler, stopped, took a deep breath, and thrusting 
his hands into his pockets began descending the steps with- 
out moving his eyes from the soldiers. 

85. The Adjutant 

Sijeune et si d^corS, 

86. The Road of the War Prisoners. 

The road from Plevna to the Danube for a distance of 
thirty to forty miles was literally strewn with the bodies of 




frozen wounded Turks. The frost set in so suddenly, and 
with such severity, that the brave defenders of Plevna in 
their stiff frozen overcoats were too weak to resist it, and 
by ones and twos fell on the road, and were frozen to death. 
With the assistance of a Cossack companion I tried to raise 
some of these fallen and set them on their feet, but they fell 
down again, so completely enfeebled were they, though 
evidently anxious to follow their comrades. Sitting and 
lying in the snow they moved hands and feet as though 
they longed to be moving, but were powerless. The next 
day their movements became less, and they lay on the snow 
by the hundred, prostrate on their backs, moving lips and 
fingers as they gradually and slowly froze to death. (Having 
heard that this kind of death was one of the least painful, I 
closely examined the faces of the corpses lying in every 
imaginable position along the road, and convinced myself 
that every face bore the impress of deep suffering. This 
form of death then is evidently also not painless.) I recol- 
lect two Turks in particular — an old man, and quite a youth, 
seated by the side of the road, warming themselves by a 
diminutive fire of a few sticks. When I stopped my horse 
near them in the morning, the youth tried to speak to me, but 
burst into tears, and I could only understand, " Oh, Effendi, 
Effendi ! " I answered, pointing to heaven, " Allah, Allah ! ** 
The older man was silent, and looked gloomily down. On 
returning to Plevna in the evening I sought out the place 
where I had left them ; the little fire had long burnt itself 
out, the young Turk lay prostrate and apparently dead, while 
his companion sat motionless beside him bent almost double. 
He, too, was probably also dead. 

The first few days there was nobody to remove the dead 
and dying, so that passing carts and gun-carriages crushed 
their bodies into the snow and rendered it impossible to ex- 
tricate them without spoiling the road. 




87. A Resting-place of Prisoners. 

I remember a party of eight to ten thousand prisoners at 
Plevaa overtaken by a snow-storm. They extended along 
the high road for a great distance and sat closely huddled 
together, with heads bent down, and from all this mass of 
human beings there rose a dull moaning from thousands of 
voices as they slowly and in measure repeated, " Allah ! Allah ! 
Allah ! " The snow covered them, the wind blew through 
their chilled forms ; no fire, no shelter, no bread. When 
the word of command to start was given, I saw some of 
the older, venerable Turks, probably fathers of families, 
crying like children, and imploring the escort to let them go 
as far as the town to dry their clothes, warm themselves, 
and rest ; but this was strictly forbidden, as there were 
such numbers of them, and only one answer was returned 
to all their supplications, " Forward, forward ! *' 

88. The Conquered. 

A regiment of Chasseurs of the Guard having been 
ordered to make a feigned attack on the Turkish fortress of 
Telisch, instead of manoeuvring, by mistake attacked in 
earnest. Half were immediately killed or wounded, the 
remainder retiring. The Turks left their fortifications, and 
throwing themselves upon the dead and wounded, plunder- 
ing and stripping them naked, even mutilating them in the 
most barbarous fashion. . . Two days afterwards, when 
the Russians captured the fortress, they collected the bodies 
of their unfortunate comrades, counted, and buried them all 
in one large grave. The priest performed the burial service, 
and offered up prayers for all those who had lain down 
their lives for their Fatherland. 







89. Russian Types. 

(a) Blacksmith, native of Vladimir, 59 years of age. 
(d) His wife, 50 years of age. 

(c) Coppersmith, native of Smolensk, 62 years of age, 
has all his life made cockades. 

(d) Girl of district near Mosko, 15 years of age. 

(e) Dvornik (gate-keeper), 40 years of age, native of 

(/) Retired valet de chambre, 70 years of age, has been 
50 years in service, and looks upon his masters with feelings 
not unmixed with irony. 

90. The Kreml, from the opposite side of the River 

Moskva. This is one of the most curious sights in 
existence. I do not know any other city in the 
world that would present more original and even 
more striking views. 

91. Crucifixion by the Romans. 1 " Eye for 

I Eye 

92. Blowing from Guns in British I — -^ ' 

India. °° 

93. Hanging in Russia. J Tooth." 

94. Private Mosque at the Palace of the Great 

Moguls in Delhi. 

95. Mendicant Friar of the Order of Nakhsb-bendi at 

the doors of a Mosque in Turkestan. 

96. The Kreml of Moscow in Winter. 

97. The same. 

98. The Moscow Cathedrals and the river Moskva 
(in the spring). 




99- A Street in the Town of Rostov, in the winter 
with the setting sun. 

100. Tkonostass of an old Wooden Church in the 
Village of Tshna. 

Services are rarely held in this church. Therefore it is 
preserved as it was in the XVIIth century. It has escaped 
the hands of the restorers and of the lovers of modem 

loi. Interior of same Church. 

This is the Prior's Pew, the church having formerly 
belonged to a monastery. 

102. Entrance Door of the same Church, 

Together with the good old woman who, in place of her 
octogenarian husband, takes care of the church and protects 
it against embellishments. 

103. Ancient Terems (palaces) in the Kreml of 


These palaces were occupied by the Dukes of Rostov ; 
after them by the metropolitans of the province ; and, 
among others, by Philaret, father of the first Tsar of the 
house of Romanof, who was forced to take orders by 
another pretender to the throne, a more powerful man, 
Godunof, who succeeded in getting into power for a short 

104. Entrance Door to the Ipatief Cathedral at 


At this door came out the first Romanof, the Tsar 
Michel Feodorovitch, when he showed himself to the people 
after his election. The young prince was hiding, together 
with his mother, behind the walls of the monastery from the 




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A Jew of Jerusalem. 




Poles, who devastated Russia at that time ; and it was here 
that he received the delegated who came solemnly offering 
the crown to him. 

105. Family Vault of the Soltykofs and other princely 
families in the monastery of Bogojavlensk in Kostroma. 

♦ « He He :|e ♦ 

The exhibition also includes a collection of Photographs 
of my earlier works, chiefly relating to Central Asia. 

106. The Portico of a Church of the XVI Ith Cen- 
tury in Jaroslexv. 

It is on such galleries that, waiting for the service to 
begin, or at the end of it, the people come out to rest 
themselves and to converse. The vaults and the walls are 
covered with paintings on subjects from the Holy Writ, with 
appropriate inscriptions. 

107. The same. 


108. An Ambush. 

A small Russian detachment, sent on a reconnoitring 
expedition, has encamped in a valley, unaware that the 
enemy (Uzbeks and Kirghizes) is concealed in the neigh- 
boring hills, watching a favorable moment for the attack. 

109. The Surprise. 

No sooner has the detachment dispersed, intent on various 
errands, than masses of the enemy are upon it, uttering 
terrible cries, and brandishing their swords and spears. All 
those Russians who had gone a little distance are cut down; 
the remainder assemble and prepare to sell their lives dearly. 
(I was present at one of these engagements,) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


no. Surrounded — Pursued. 

The handful of brave survivors, surrounded on all sides, 
retreats fighting. They have beaten off the enemy, and 
keep him at a respectful distance with their rifle fire. The 
dead are abandoned, the wounded led away. An officer 
is carried by his men. (A picture representing the total 
destruction of a detachment in a mountain defile, where the 
last survivors are shot down and killed by fragments of rock 
hurled from the crags above, was not finished.) 

III. Presenting the Trophies. 

In the palace of the Emir of Bokhara, at Samarkand. In 
the background is the celebrated *Kok-tash' — the throne 
of Tamerlane. The heads of the slaughtered Russians are 
brought to the Emir, who rewards the bearers of these 
trophies with the customary robes of honor, each individual 
receiving according to the number of heads he brings. 

112. Triumph. 

The Emir presents his people with the heads of their foes. 
These are then stuck upon high poles in the principal square 
in Samarkand, in front of the mosques. A mollah preaches 
on the text : " Thus God ordains that infidels should perish ; 
there is only one God ! " 

113. Returning Thanks for the Victory. 

The Emir and his retinue offer up thanksgivings for the 
victory at the grave of Tamerlane — great Mohammedan 
saint of our day — ^noted conqueror ai^d robber of formei 




114. Apotheosis of War. 

Dedicated to all the great conquerors, past, present, and 
future. This picture is not the creation of the artist's 
imagination — it is historically correct. Tamerlane and many 
other heroes raised such monuments on their battle-fields, 
leaving the bones to be cleansed and whitened by the sun 
and rain, by wolves, jackals, and birds of prey. Not very 
long ago, about i860, the celebrated German scientist, 
Schlagintweit (while in the English service), was murdered 
by Valikhan-tiure, despot of Jetyshar in Kashgaria, and his 
head was thrown on a similar, though smaller pyramid, 
which it was the Khan's amusement to watch growing daily 

115. Gate of Tamerlane. 

In the palace at Samarkand. 

116. Gate of a Mosque. 

Two friars of the begging order of Nakshbendi engaged 
in the usual way ; a common mode of passing spare time in 
Central Asia. 

117. Hush! Let Them Enter. 

During the defence of Samarkand by the Russians, an 
assault was momentarily expected through one of the 
breaches made by the enemy in the walls. The shonts of 
the approaching multitude were audible, and I begged 
Colonel N., then in command of the garrison, to sally out 
to meet them but his answer was, ** Hush ! let them enter." 

118. They Have Entered. 

The assault has been repulsed, and the tired soldiers are 
calmly smoking their pipes, whilst a few remove the dead 




iiQ. From Mountain to Valley. 

In autumn the Kirghiz abandon their encampments near 
the snow line, and remove to winter quarters. In order not 
to damage their clothes by packing them into boxes, they 
attire themselves in all their best robes, so that one of these 
migrations has all the appearance of a holiday procession. 

120. Underground Prison at Samarkand. 

Built of brick, with a narrow funnel-shaped mouth, the 
only means of ingress and egress being by a rope with loops. 
When I descended into this gloomy dungeon I almost fainted 
from the stench and foul air, and could with difficulty make 
my sketch. And here prisoners remained for more than ten 
years in succession without ever breathing pure air. This 
infernal den was called the bug-hole, and I believe a certain 
kind of bug or other insect was purposely bred to stock it, 
and prey day and night upon the unfortunate victims. Let 
me add, however, that I found no bugs in it. 

In this very dungeon the ill-fated Stoddart and ConoUy 
were imprisoned for a time. At the instance of the Russian 
agent they were released, and might have availed themselves 
of their opportunity to escape, but refused to do so (an his- 
torical fact). 

121. The Mortally Wounded Soldier. 

The first man I saw wounded was a soldier who had been 
struck by a bullet in the chest. He threw away his gun, 
placed both hands over his wound, and began reeling like a 
drunken man. " Oh, comrades, they have killed me, they 
have killed me. My death has come to me." . . . "Lie 
down, brother,*' answer his companions, but he continues to 
stagger a little longer, then falls ptone to the ground. 




122. The Kirg^hiz Sportsman. 

The favorite pastime of the rich Kirghiz is hawking. For 
this purpose hawks and eagles are trained by being blind- 
folded, and by never being allowed to sleep. 

123. Sale of a Slave. 

124. Central Asian Politicians. 

Ragged, half drunk with opium, they are nevertheless 
among the keenest of politicians. They know and discuss 
not only what the Ak Padishah, /. e.^ White Tsar, does and 
says, but what he thinks and is meditating. 

125. Beggars at Samarkand. 

Along the highways leading to the chief places of resort 
they may be seen by the dozen, sometimes sitting on the 
ground, and importunately begging alms. 

126. Chorus of Dervishes or Divans. 

Of the aforesaid monastic order of Nakshbendi. They 
parade the streets in troops led by their chief singer, and 
howl unceasingly until they receive alms. Every novice, on 
joining the fraternity, receives a cap, a belt, a bowl made of 
a gourd, and a dress of variegated patches of stuff obtained 
by begging at the bazaar. 

127. Dividing the Spoil. 

128. The Conquerors. 

Turks stripping the Russian dead on the field of Telisch. 

129. Parleying. 

" Surrender ! " " Go to the devil ! " 




130. The Forgotten Soldier. 

In Turkestan. (The original picture was destroyed by the 

131. Russian Graves on the Shipka. 


(a) Various. 1853-58. 

(^) Caucasus and Transcaucasus, Russian Lecterians. 

(c) Caucasus and Transcaucasus, Mussulman Shiyth pro- 
cession. 1864-65. 

(^) Danube types. 1866. 

(e) Russian peasants. 1867. 

(/) Types of Jerusalem. 1888. 



132. Large Carpet from India. 

133. Same, Kashmirian. 

134. Same, Tibetan. 

135' : Same, Yarkandiam. 

136. Same, Turkish. 

137. Same, Persian. 

138. Same, Turkoman. 




139- Glazed tiles from Jerusalem, from the Mosque of 
Omar, and various other buildings. 

140. Others from the old Duma, or council house of 


141. Tiles from the Mosque of Shah Zinda at Samarkand. 

142. A piece of marble trellis- work from the tomb of 
Tamerlane in the Mosque of Ghur-Amir. 

143. A fragment of marble from the tomb of Tamerlane's 
son in the Mosque of Ghur-Amir. 

144. Stones with sacred Budhistic figures and inscriptions 
from Ladak and Western Tibet. 

145. Medallions used as talismans, of Tibetan workman- 

146. Tibetan prayer wheels. 

147. Specimens of Tibetan art. 

148. Drum, and pipes made of human bones from Tibet 
and Sikkhim. 

149. Drinking-cup made from a human skull. 

150. Bowls made of a full human skull. 

151. Bowls made of the skeleton of a snake. 

152. Bowls made of dried fruit. 

153. Tibetan images. 

154. Marbles from the Mosque of Omar. 

155. Root of an ancient cypress from quarry under the old 
Temple of Jerusalem. 

156. Articles used in Budhistic service, etc. 

157. Masks of Tibetan saints. 

158. Arms of the Turks during the last war: guns of 
infantry, and cavalry swords. 

159. Arms of the Russians : guns, swords, etc., of infantry 
and cavalry ; army sword remodeled, bayonet, cutlass. 




160. Arms, helmets, shields, chain-armor, etc., from India 
and Central Asia. 

161. Indian Vessels. 

162. Dish from India. 

163. Ditto from Cashmere. 

164. A Snake of Indian workmanship. 

165. English lady represented by Hindoo. 

166. Different Brahmin deities in copper. 

167. Vishnu in white marble. 

Ancient Russian Applied Art as Seen in Different 
Objects of Household Use. 

168. A bowl (a cup) called " bratina " for drinking wine, 
belonging, as I presume, to the XVIth century, with an 
inscription in Old Slavo-Russian, very difficult to decipher : 
"And wine will cheat the spells (dispel the charms), the 
leisure of the toper " (further on I could not make out the 

169. A bowl, " bratina," in copper of well-nigh the same 

170. A scoop for wine, of the XVIIIth century, with the 
inscription : " Apostle Paul says, ' It is not the wine that is 
cursed, but cursed is drutikenness.* " 

171. A cup for Vodka. 

172. Cups, " Koobky,'* of the time of Peter the Great. 

173. Inkstands. 

174. Table-knives. 
175' A. copper scoop. 

176. A wooden ladle. 

177. A thumper for beating clothes in washing. 




178. A copper dish. 

179. An ivory casket. • 

180. Wooden caskets for money and effects. 

181. Caskets with iron ornamentation. 

182. A candlestick. 

183. A wooden salt box. 

184. Snuffers. 

185. Baskets of carved birch bark. 

186. An iron ball fastened to a strap as a weapon. 
187- Buttons of man's and woman's attire. 

188. Ear-rings and clasps. 

189. A medallion for white paint and rouge. 

190. Women's head-dresses and " phaty/' i. e., veiling worn 
on the head. 

191. Hand-made lace taken from towels, bed-spreads, and 
so forth. 

192. Silk lace. 

193* Gold and silver lace and galoons. 

194. Samples of gold cloth. • 

195. Kerchiefs. 

196. Crosses in copper, silver, gilded and enameled, for 
wearing close to the body. 

197. Crosses and medallions for wearing over the dress. 

198. Chains in silver ; gilded and enameled chains. 

199. A wooden cross. 

200. A cross with a chain — the belt of a hermit. 

201. Samples of wood-carving taken from churches. 

202. Beads in bone, cornelian stone, in wood, in silk, 
in wool, and in leather. 

203. Reproductions from church ornaments. 



At the Railway Station. 


Siberian Woman. 

Magyar.— Serbian. 

On Board Swiss Steamer. 


Roumanian.— Austrian Soldier. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

A Jew of Jerusalem 







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